Nutritional Value Concept

The examine reveals that the dietary worth of meat substitutes presently available on the market is usually insufficient, primarily based on components such because the collection of uncooked supplies (usually imported soy), processing strategies (content material of anti-nutrients), and added substances (fats high quality and salt).

The rise of plant-based protein choices as meat substitutes has grown considerably as extra people undertake a plant-based food regimen. Nonetheless, the dietary worth of those merchandise stays a priority. A examine from the Chalmers College of Expertise in Sweden has discovered that many meat substitutes offered in Sweden boast excessive iron content material, however it’s in a type that can not be absorbed by the physique.

Ann Sofie Sandberg

Professor Ann-Sofie Sandberg, The Division of Biology and Organic Engineering, Chalmers College of Expertise. Credit score: Chalmers

A food regimen largely made up of plant-based meals reminiscent of root greens, pulses, fruit, and greens usually has a low local weather influence and can also be related to well being advantages reminiscent of a lowered threat of age-related diabetes and heart problems, as has been proven in a number of giant research. However there have been far fewer research of how folks’s well being is affected by consuming merchandise primarily based on what is called texture plant proteins.

Within the new examine from Chalmers, a analysis workforce within the Division of Meals and Vitamin Science analyzed 44 totally different meat substitutes offered in Sweden. The merchandise are primarily manufactured from soy and pea protein, but additionally embrace the fermented soy product tempeh and mycoproteins, that’s, proteins from fungi.

“Amongst these merchandise, we noticed a large variation in dietary content material and the way sustainable they are often from a well being perspective. Usually, the estimated absorption of iron and zinc from the merchandise was extraordinarily low. It is because these meat substitutes contained excessive ranges of phytates, antinutrients that inhibit the absorption of minerals within the physique,” says Cecilia Mayer Labba, the examine’s lead creator, who just lately defended her thesis on the dietary limitations of switching from animal protein to plant-based protein.

The physique misses out on obligatory minerals

Phytates are discovered naturally in beans and cereals – they accumulate when proteins are extracted to be used in meat substitutes. Within the gastrointestinal tract, the place mineral absorption takes place, phytates type insoluble compounds with important dietary minerals, particularly non-heme iron (iron present in plant meals) and zinc, which implies that they can’t be absorbed within the gut.

“Each iron and zinc additionally accumulate in protein extraction. That is why excessive ranges are listed among the many product’s substances, however the minerals are certain to phytates and can’t be absorbed and utilized by the physique,” says Cecilia Mayer Labba.

Cecilia Mayer Labba

Dr. Cecilia Mayer Labba, The Division of Biology and Organic Engineering, Chalmers College of Expertise. Credit score: Martina Butorac/Chalmers

Iron deficiency amongst ladies is a widespread, world drawback. In Europe, 10 to 32 per cent of ladies of childbearing age are affected and nearly one in three teenage ladies at secondary college in Sweden. Girls are additionally the group in society most certainly to have switched to a plant-based food regimen and to eat the least quantity of pink meat, which is the primary supply of iron that may be simply absorbed within the digestive tract.

‘It’s clear that relating to minerals in meat substitutes, the quantity that’s obtainable for absorption by the physique is a vital consideration. You can not simply have a look at the listing of substances. A number of the merchandise we studied are fortified with iron however it’s nonetheless inhibited by phytates. We imagine that making diet claims on solely these vitamins that may be absorbed by the physique might create incentives for the business to enhance these merchandise,’ says Ann-Sofie Sandberg, Professor of Meals and Vitamin Science at Chalmers and co-author of the examine.

The meals business wants new strategies

Tempeh, made out of fermented soybeans, differed from the opposite meat substitutes within the quantity of iron obtainable for absorption by the physique. This was anticipated, because the fermentation of tempeh makes use of microorganisms that break down phytates. Mycoproteins stood out for his or her excessive zinc content material, with out containing any recognized absorption inhibitors. Nonetheless, based on the researchers, it’s nonetheless unclear how effectively our intestines can break down the cell partitions of mycoprotein and the way this in flip impacts the absorption of vitamins.

“Plant-based meals is vital for the transition to sustainable meals manufacturing, and there may be enormous improvement potential for plant-based meat substitutes. The business wants to consider the dietary worth of those merchandise and to make the most of and optimize recognized course of methods reminiscent of fermentation, but additionally develop new strategies to extend the absorption of assorted vital vitamins,” says Cecilia Mayer Labba.

Manufacturing of plant proteins

  • Most current plant-based protein merchandise available on the market are primarily based on protein extracted from a cultivated plant, reminiscent of soybeans, and separated from the plant’s different elements.
  • The protein is then subjected to excessive strain and temperature, which restructures the proteins, generally known as texturization so {that a} product will be achieved that’s meatier and chewier together with different substances.
  • Chalmers’ examine exhibits that the dietary worth of meat substitutes obtainable as we speak is usually poor relying on the selection of uncooked materials (usually imported soy) and processing circumstances (content material of anti-nutrients), and on components (fats high quality and salt).
  • A meal containing 150 grams of meat substitutes contributes as much as 60 % of the utmost beneficial each day consumption of salt, which based on the Nordic Vitamin Suggestions is 6 grams.

Reference: “Dietary Composition and Estimated Iron and Zinc Bioavailability of Meat Substitutes Accessible on the Swedish Market” by Inger-Cecilia Mayer Labba, Hannah Steinhausen, Linnéa Almius, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen and Ann-Sofie Sandberg, 21 September 2022, Vitamins.
DOI: 10.3390/nu14193903

The examine was funded by the Bertebos Basis, the Swedish Analysis Council Formas, and the area of Västra Götaland.